As hypothesized by
Lee R. Dice (1940) and W. Frank Blair (1950)
Stage 1. Incipient P. maniculatus originated in southwestern
North America during Sangamon lnterglacial or
earlier from an ancestral P. leucopus-allied
population. Sea levels were higher than at
present. Florida was insular, and the Gulf and
southeastern Atlantic coastline were well inland
from the present coast.
Stage 2. During the Wisconsin Glaciation (80,000 - 205,000
ybp) sea levels were lower than at present,
expanding the southeastern coastline well beyond
that of today. Range of P. maniculatus extended
eastward along the southeastern coastal plain into
Florida. The eastward flank represents incipient
Stage 3. As sea levels rose at end of the Wisconsin Glaciation
and the Mississippi River Delta developed from
glacial melt runoff, P. polionotus along the eastern
Gulf Coast became physically isolated from the
parent P. maniculatus populations of the southwest.
The Texas race of P. maniculatus, P. m. pallescens,
remains morphologically and ecologically similar to
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